Toxic Influence of Organophosphate, Carbamate, and Organochlorine Pesticides on Cellular Metabolism of Lipids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates: A Systematic Review
Pesticides, including organophosphate (OP), organochlorine (OC), and carbamate (CB) compounds, are widely used in agricultural and indoor purposes. OP and CB act as acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that affect lots of organs such as peripheral and central nervous systems, muscles, liver, pancreas, and brain, whereas OC are neurotoxic involved in alteration of ion channels. There are several reports about metabolic disorders, hyperglycemia, and also oxidative stress in acute and chronic exposures to pesticides that are linked with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. In this respect, there are several in vitro and in vivo but few clinical studies about mechanism underlying these effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for the years 1963–2010 and resulted in 1652 articles. After elimination of duplicates or irrelevant papers, 204 papers were included and reviewed. Results indicated that OP and CB impair the enzymatic pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein within cytoplasm, mitochondria, and proxisomes. It is believed that OP and CB show this effect through inhibition of AChE or affecting target organs directly. OC mostly affect lipid metabolism in the adipose tissues and change glucose pathway in other cells. As a shared mechanism, all OP, CB and OC induce cellular oxidative stress via affecting mitochondrial function and therefore disrupt neuronal and hormonal status of the body. Establishing proper epidemiological studies to explore exact relationships between exposure levels to these pesticides and rate of resulted metabolic disorders in human will be helpful.
Publisher - Sage Publications
Subjects - Chemical, Pesticides; Chemical, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB); Chemical, Carbamates
Citation: Karami-Mohajeri S, Abdollahi M. 2011. Toxic Influence of Organophosphate, Carbamate, and Organochlorine Pesticides on Cellular Metabolism of Lipids, Proteins, and Carbohydrates: A Systematic Review. Human Exp. Toxicol.; 30(9):1119-1140 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110388959