Degradation of Bifenthrin, Chlorpyrifos and Imidacloprid in Soil and Bedding Materials at Termiticidal Application Rates
Organophosphorus, pyrethroid and chloronicotinyl insecticides have been used to control termites in building structures in recent years. We investigated the degradation behaviour of three insecticides (bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid) at termiticidal application rates under standard laboratory conditions (25°C, 60% field moisture capacity and darkness) for 24 months. The study was carried out on one soil and two bedding materials (sand-dolomite and quarry sand), which are commonly used under housing in Australia. Experiments were also conducted to examine the effect of soil moisture on the degradation of these insecticides. Insecticide residues in the samples collected at different days after application were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The rate of degradation of bifenthrin and imidacloprid insecticides was adequately described by a first-order kinetic model (r2?=?0.93–0.97). However, chlorpyrifos degradation was biphasic, showing an initial faster degradation followed by a slower rate. Therefore, the degradation data during the slower phase only (after a two-month period) followed the first-order law (r2?=?0.95). Soil moisture had little effect on degradation of imidacloprid and bifenthrin. Among the three insecticides, bifenthrin and imidacloprid were most stable and chlorpyrifos the least. Chlorpyrifos showed a major loss (75–90%) of residue during the 24 months incubation period. In the bedding materials, simultaneous accumulation of the primary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) was observed. Hydrolysis appeared to have caused the observed rapid loss of chlorpyrifos, especially in the highly alkaline bedding materials (sand-dolomite and quarry sand).
Publisher - Wiley Interscience
Subjects - Insecticide; Chemical, Bifenthrin; Chemical, Chlorpyrifos; Chemical, Imidacloprid