Lead Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review
Lead (Pb) and its compounds have been known to man for about 7,000 years, and Pb poisoning has been recognized for at least 2,500 years. All credible evidence indicates that Pb is neither essential nor beneficial to living organisms, and that all measured effects are adverse-including those on survival, growth, reproduction, development, behavior, learning, and metabolism.
Publisher - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
Subjects - Chemical, Lead; Toxicity
Citation: Eisler R. 1988. Lead Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review. Biological Reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 85(1.14):1-94 http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/eisler/CHR_14_Lead.pdf