Chronic Toxicity of Water-borne and Dietary Lead to Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Lake Ontario Water
Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to lead in Lake Ontario water demonstrated a 21-day LC50 of 2.4 mg l?1 lead. At lead concentrations ranging from 3 to 120 ?g l?1, log10 of lead concentrations in most tissues of exposed fish appeared linearily related to log10 of lead concentrations in water. Highest concentrations occurred in opercular bone followed by gill and kidney. Lead accumulation by brain was not clearly demonstrated. Exposure to lead in water at concentrations as low as 13 ?g l?1 caused significant increases in red blood cell (RBC) numbers, decreases in RBC volumes, decreases in RBC cellular iron content and decreases in RBC ?-amino levulinic acid dehydratase activity. No changes were observed in hematocrit or whole blood iron content. The changes indicated increased erythropoiesis to compensate for inhibition of hemoglobin production and increased mortality of mature red blood cells. After 32 weeks exposure to 120 ?g l?1 lead in water, 30% of remaining fish exhibited black tails, an early indication of spinal deformities. Lead added to food was not available for lead uptake by fish. Lead content of fish exposed to dietary lead was not elevated above control levels and the majority of lead consumed could be accounted for in the faeces. Dietary lead may have slightly inhibited uptake of dietary iron.
Publisher - Elsevier
Subjects - Fish, Rainbow Trout; Chemical, Leadhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(78)90039-8
Citation: Hodson PV, Blunt BR, Spry DJ. 1978. Chronic Toxicity of Water-borne and Dietary Lead to Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Lake Ontario Water. Water Res.; 12(10):869-878 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(78)90039-8